Apparatus and method for uniformly cooking food with asymmetrically placed radiant energy sources

Abstract

An oven for cooking with light having wavelengths in the visible, near visible, and infra-red spectral ranges uses one or more quartz halogen tungsten lamps or quartz arc bulbs positioned above and below the food item. Uniform cooking of the food item is achieved by positioning the lamps asymmetrically with respect to the midline of the oven and by rotating the food item on a rack during the cooking cycle.

Claims

We claim: 1. An oven for cooking a food item, the oven comprising: a food support rotatable about an axis of rotation, the food support having a cooking area thereon which has a widest dimension extending in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation; a radiation source for directing radiant energy having a significant portion of the radiant energy in the visible and near visible light range of the electromagnetic spectrum onto the food support, wherein the cooking area is defined as any portion of the food support that directly faces the radiation source at least at some point while the oven cooks a food item supported by the food support; and the radiation source including an array of elongate first lamps each having an effective length which is shorter than the widest dimension of the cooking area and a longitudinal axis parallel to the longitudinal axes of the other first lamps, the first lamps positioned facing the food support such that the perpendicular distance between each first lamp and a plane containing the axis of rotation and extending parallel to the longitudinal axes of the first lamps differs from the distance between the plane and the other first lamps; wherein the food support receives a desired amount of radiant energy from the radiation source throughout the entire cooking area for uniform cooking when the food support is rotated. 2. The oven of claim 1 wherein the first lamps are positioned above the food support and wherein the radiation source further comprises an array of second lamps each having an effective length which is shorter than the widest dimension of the cooking area and a longitudinal axis parallel to the longitudinal axes of the other second lamps and to the plane, the second lamps positioned below the food support such that the perpendicular distance between each second lamp and the plane differs from the distance between the plane and the other second lamps. 3. An oven for cooking a food item, the oven comprising: a food support rotatable about an axis of rotation, the food support having a cooking area thereon which has a widest dimension extending in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation; and a radiation source for directing radiant energy having a significant portion of the radiant energy in the visible and near visible light range of the electromagnetic spectrum onto the food support, wherein the cooking area is defined as any portion of the food support that directly faces the radiation source at least at some point while the oven cooks a food item supported by the food support, the radiation source comprising: an array of first lamps, each first lamp having a longitudinal axis parallel to the longitudinal axes of the other first lamps, the first lamps facing the food support such that the perpendicular distance between each first lamp and a plane containing the axis of rotation and extending parallel to the longitudinal axes of the first lamps differs from the distance between the plane and the other first lamps, wherein all of the first lamps are positioned to one side of the plane, and an array of second lamps, each second lamp having a longitudinal axis parallel to the longitudinal axes of the other second lamps and to the plane, the second lamps facing the food support such that the perpendicular distance between each second lamp and the plane differs from that of the other second lamps, each of the first and second lamps having an effective length which is shorter than the widest dimension of the cooking area; wherein the food support receives a desired amount of radiant energy from the radiation source throughout the entire cooking area for uniform cooking when the food support is rotated. 4. The oven of claim 3, wherein all of the first lamps are positioned to one side of the plane, and wherein all of the second lamps are positioned to a side of the plane opposite to the side on which the first lamps are located. 5. The oven of claim 3 wherein the array of first lamps includes at least one more lamp than the array of second lamps. 6. The oven of claim 3, wherein the first lamps are positioned above the food support and the second lamps are positioned below the food support. 7. The oven of claim 6 wherein the radiation source further comprises: an array of third lamps, each third lamp having a longitudinal axis parallel to the plane, the third lamps positioned below the food support such that the perpendicular distance between each third lamp and the plane differs from that of the other third lamps, wherein all of the third lamps are positioned on the same side of the plane as the first lamps, and an array of fourth lamps, each fourth lamp having a longitudinal axis parallel to the plane, the fourth lamps positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between each fourth lamp and the plane differs from that of the other fourth lamps, wherein all of the fourth lamps are positioned on the same side of the plane as the second lamps, and wherein each third and fourth lamp has an effective length which is shorter than the widest dimension of the cooking area. 8. A method of cooking a food item positioned on a food support having an axis of rotation and a cooking area thereon with a widest dimension extending in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation, the method comprising the steps of: directing radiant energy having a significant portion of the radiant energy in the visible and near visible light range of the electromagnetic spectrum onto the food item positioned on the cooking area; initiating said radiant energy from a plurality of spaced apart lamps having substantially parallel longitudinal axes, the longitudinal axes parallel to a plane containing the axis of rotation of the food support, the lamps spaced different distances from said plane and having effective lengths which are shorter than the widest dimension of the cooking area, wherein the cooking area is defined as any portion of the food support that directly faces at least one of the plurality of spaced apart lamps at least at some point while the oven cooks a food item supported by the food support; and rotating the food support about the axis of rotation, wherein the food support receives a desired amount of radiant energy from the radiation source throughout the entire cooking area for uniform cooking. 9. The method of claim 8 wherein the initiating step includes the steps of: initiating a first portion of said radiant energy from a first array of a number N of spaced apart first lamps having substantially parallel longitudinal axes, the longitudinal axes parallel to the plane containing the axis of rotation of the food support, the first lamps positioned on one side of the plane and spaced different distances from said plane; and initiating a second portion of said radiant energy from a second array of a number more than N of spaced apart second lamps having substantially parallel longitudinal axes, the longitudinal axes parallel to the plane containing the axis of rotation of the food support, the second lamps spaced different distances from said plane, all of the second lamps positioned to a side of the plane opposite to the side on which the first lamps are located, wherein each first and second lamp has an effective length which is shorter than the widest dimension of the cooking area, and wherein the cooking area includes any portion of the food support that directly faces at least one of the first and second lamps at least at some point while the oven cooks a food item supported by the food support. 10. The method of claim 8 wherein the initiating step includes the steps of: initiating a first portion of said radiant energy from a first array of a number N of spaced apart first lamps having substantially parallel longitudinal axes, the longitudinal axes parallel to the plane containing the axis of rotation of the food support, the first lamps positioned above the food support and spaced different distances from said plane; and initiating a second portion of said radiant energy from a second array of a number more than N of spaced apart second lamps positioned below the food support, the second lamps having substantially parallel longitudinal axes, the longitudinal axes parallel to the plane containing the axis of rotation of the food support, the second lamps spaced different distances from said plane, wherein each first and second lamp has an effective length which is shorter than the widest dimension of the cooking area, and wherein the cooking area includes any portion of the food support that directly faces at least one of the first and second lamps at least at some point while the oven cooks a food item supported by the food support. 11. An oven for cooking a food item, the oven comprising: a food support rotatable about an axis of rotation, the food support having edges and a widest dimension d extension between the edges in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation; an array of elongate lamps for directing radiant energy having a significant portion of the radiant energy in the visible and near visible light range of the electromagnetic spectrum onto the food support, each lamp having a filament length L of approximately 10/12d or greater, but less than d, each lamp further having a longitudinal axis parallel to the longitudinal axes of the other lamps, the array including; a first lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the first lamp and a plane containing the axis of rotation and extending parallel to the longitudinal axes of the lamps is substantially equal to 1/10L, a second lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the second lamp and the plane is substantially equal to 4.5/10L, a third lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the third lamp and the plane is substantially equal to 5.5/10L, a fourth lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the fourth lamp and the plane is substantially equal to 3.5L, and a fifth lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the fourth lamp and the plane is substantially equal to 5.9/10L; said first, second and third lamps being located on one side of the plane and said fourth and fifth lamps being located on the side of the plane opposite said one side, and rotation means for rotating the food support about the axis of rotation. 12. An oven for cooking a food item, the oven comprising: a food support rotatable about an axis of rotation, the food support having edges and a widest dimension d extending between the edges in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation r; an array of elongate lamps for directing radiant energy having a significant portion of the radiant energy in the visible and near visible light range of the electromagnetic spectrum onto the food support, each lamp having a filament length L such that L/d is approximately between 10/12 and 1, but less than 1, each lamp further having a longitudinal axis parallel to the longitudinal axes of the other lamps, the array including; a first lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the first lamp and a plane containing the axis of rotation and extending parallel to the longitudinal axes of the lamps is substantially equal to 1.2(L/D), a second lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the second lamp and the plane is substantially equal to 5.4(L/d); a third lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the third lamp and the plane is substantially equal to 6.6(L/d); a fourth lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the fourth lamp and the plane is substantially equal to 4.2(L/d); and a fifth lamp positioned above the food support such that the perpendicular distance between the fourth lamp and the plane is substantially equal to 7.08(L/d); said first, second and third lamps being located on one side of the plane and said fourth and fifth lamps being located on the side of the plane opposite said one side; and rotation means for rotating the food support about the axis of rotation.
RELATED APPLICATIONS This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 08/065,802 filed on May 21, 1993, now abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 07/738,207, filed Jul. 30, 1991, now abandoned, which was a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 07/350,024, filed May 12, 1989, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,036,179 which was in turn a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 07/195,967, filed May 19, 1988, now abandoned. FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to the field of radiant source ovens. More particularly, this invention relates to ovens having a rotating rack and an array of linear radiation sources typically shorter than the transverse dimension of the cooking location and which are arranged to maximize uniform cooking of a food item. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Ovens following the present invention and having linear sources of visible and infra-red radiant energy are disclosed and described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,036,179 and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 07/738,207 which are incorporated herein by reference. These ovens provide high-speed, high-quality cooking and baking of food items by impinging high-intensity visible, near-visible, and infrared radiations onto a food item. The ovens cook the food items within the short periods of time normally found in microwave cooking while maintaining the browning of infrared cooking and the quality of conduction-convection cooking. When food is exposed to a sufficiently intense source of visible, near-visible, and infrared radiation, the food absorbs low levels of visible and near-visible radiation, thereby allowing the energy to penetrate the foodstuff and heat it deeply. The longer infrared radiation does not penetrate deeply but acts as an effective browning agent. Ordinarily, the source of the visible, near-visible and infrared radiation for this invention is in excess of two elongated quartz-halogen tungsten lamps, or equivalent means such as quartz arc lamps. Typical quartz-halogen lamps of this type operate at 3000 degrees Kelvin and convert electrical energy into black body radiation having a range of wavelengths from 0.4 μm to 4.5 μm with a peak intensity at 0.965 μm. Each lamp can generally provide about between 1.5 and 2 kW of radiant energy with a significant portion of the energy in the visible light spectrum. The ovens can use a plurality of these lamps or an array of several lamps either operated in unison or selectively operated in varying combinations as necessary for the particular food item sought to be cooked. These radiation sources are ordinarily positioned above and below the food item. The walls of the surrounding food chamber are preferably made from highly reflective surfaces. The visible and infrared waves from the radiation sources impinge directly on the food item and are also reflected off the reflected surfaces and onto the food item from many angles. This reflecting action improves uniformity of cooking. The intensity of radiant energy received by an object decreases with the increase in distance between the object and the radiant energy source. Despite the improved uniformity of cooking provided by the reflective interior surfaces of the oven, the areas of the food item that are positioned directly above or below the radiation sources receive more direct energy and therefore cook more quickly than their surrounding areas. FIGS. 1A and 1B show an end view and a longitudinal side view, respectively, of a single linear radiation source 100 and further show the distributions of light intensity measured at the surface of a food item positioned underneath the radiation source. As shown in both figures, the regions of the food item which are positioned directly below the light source are exposed to the maximum intensity received by the food item, while the surrounding areas are exposed to significantly lower intensities. FIG. 2A shows a lamp configuration under which a food item 104 is cooked under an array of elongate radiation sources 100 that are shorter than the length of the food item and that are arranged in parallel. The food item is cooked to the desired degree in the regions of the food item that are close to the lamps, designated by shading in FIG. 2B. The unshaded regions remain uncooked or undercooked. Rotating the food item relative to the stationary radiation sources also yields a non-uniformly cooked end product. FIG. 3A shows a circular food surface 104, such as a pizza, positioned underneath a single radiation source 100a having a length l. The radiation source is parallel to and shorter than diameter d of the pizza. Referring to FIG. 3B, when the pizza is rotated about its center C, the radiation source cooks a circular region AA having diameter equal to the length l of the radiation source 100a. Moreover, cooked portion AA is itself non-uniformly cooked: the regions that are closer to the center C spend more time under the radiation source and therefore are cooked more thoroughly than those regions that are further away from it. As shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B, positioning a single source 100b parallel to a diameter d of the rotating pizza will cook only an annular path BB, leaving the remainder of the pizza uncooked. Combining the concepts described with respect to FIGS. 3B and 4B partially solves the problem of non-uniform cooking. FIG. 5A shows five equally spaced radiation sources 100c, 100d, 100e fixed over a pizza 104 which is positioned on a rotating rack (not shown). The sources are equal in length, and their length l is less than the diameter d of the pizza 104. The center source 110c lies above the diameter of the pizza, and the outer radiation sources are positioned parallel to it. When the pizza is rotated about the center C, the energy generated by radiation sources 100d and 100e creates partially cooked annular paths similar to region BB in FIG. 4B. These paths are also exposed by the center source 100c, although their exposure time is minimal as explained with respect to FIG. 3B. Designing an oven having radiation sources that extend beyond the outer boundaries of the food location in the oven would allow uniform cooking of the food region even where the sources are arranged as in FIG. 5A. However, there are limits to the size of radiation sources that can be manufactured for use in ovens of the present type, making it often impractical to utilize radiation sources that are longer than the area of food sought to be cooked. To attempt to do so would unnecessarily limit the size of the food items which could be cooked using combined visible and infra-red radiation. A lamp configuration is therefore needed that will provide uniform cooking even where the size of the cooking surface exceeds the dimensions of the lamps. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention utilizes an array of light sources asymmetrically placed with respect to the diameter of a rotating rack. The lamps have a length that is shorter than the width or diameter of a cooking area. Rotation of a food item beneath the asymmetrically placed lamps causes substantially all of the food surface to be exposed to substantially the same radiation for a substantially equal period of time and therefore results in substantially uniform cooking of the food item. DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIGS. 1A and 1B are an end view and a side view, respectively, of a lamp and with its associated intensity distribution measured at the surface of a food item positioned underneath the lamp. FIGS. 2A through 5B are schematic representations showing four different lamp arrays and the regions of a food item that are cooked by each of the respective arrays. FIG. 6 is a front section view of an oven according to the present invention. FIG. 7 is a side section view of a preferred embodiment of an oven according to the present invention. FIGS. 8A, 8B, and 8C are a perspective view, a top plan view, and a side elevational view, respectively, showing the preferred means for rotating the rack of the present invention. FIG. 9 is a schematic representation of the preferred lamp configuration according to the present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention is comprised generally of an oven 10, a rotating circular rack 31, and upper and lower arrays 18, 16 of radiant energy sources, or lamps. FIG. 6 is a front section view of the oven. The energy for cooking is supplied by lower heating lamps 16 and upper radiation heating lamps 18. The lamps are preferably quartz-halogen tungsten lamps which are capable of producing approximately 2 kW of radiant energy with a significant portion of the light energy in the visible light spectrum. When illuminated, the lighted portion of a preferred lamp has a length of approximately 10 inches. The inner surface of the inner wall 12 is preferably a highly polished metal, such as aluminum or stainless steel, which is very reflective to the wide spectrum of wavelengths from the radiant lamps. The oven has a door 40 (FIG. 7) which also has a reflective inner surface. Two radiation transparent plates 20 and 24 are used to isolate the cooking chamber from the radiant lamps, making the oven easier to clean. These plates can be formed from materials, such as high quality heat-resistant glasses and ceramics that are transparent to visible, non-visible and infrared radiations. The lower transparent plate 20 is supported by brackets 22a and 22b and is positioned above the lower lamps 16. The upper transparent plate 24 is supported by brackets 26a and 26b and is positioned below upper lamps 18. Shelf 28 is mounted between the transparent plates inside the oven chamber. As shown in FIG. 8A, the shelf 28 has a circular cut out portion 27 which is lined at its perimeter by a track 29. A circular rack 31, comprised of a grid of small diameter metallic bars 33, rests loosely on the track 29 as shown in FIG. 8B. During use, a heat-resistant glass dish which holds the food is placed on top of the rack for cooking. The rack has a diameter of preferably 12 to 14 inches and is capable of rotating around an axis of rotation, designated r. Rollers 35 are positioned such that when one of them is rotated by a motor (not shown), they engage with the perimeter portion of the rack, causing the rack to rotate within the track 29. FIG. 7 shows a side section of the preferred oven according to the present invention. In the preferred embodiment, there are 5 lower lamps 16a through 16e and 5 upper lamps 18a though 18e. By appropriately selecting the lateral spacing between the lamps relative to the food, even cooking can be achieved over the entire surface. This is accomplished by rotating the food item using the rack 31 and by arranging the lamps such that during the cooking cycle all regions of the food surface receive equivalent amounts of energy from the lamps. As described above, this requires arranging the lamps such that all regions of the food surface are positioned directly underneath a lamp for substantially equivalent periods of time. This desired result is most readily accomplished by positioning the lamps asymmetrically with respect to the midline m of the lamp array. Asymmetry is achieved by positioning unequal numbers of lamps on either side of the midline, and/or by positioning the lamps at unequal distances from the midline such that the lamp arrangements on either side of the midline are not "mirror images" of one another. Alternatively, an equal number of equally spaced lamps may be positioned on either side of the midline, and asymmetrical configurations of lamps may be selectively illuminated depending on the size and of the food item sought to be cooked and its ability to absorb visible light. Because different food types will be capable of absorbing different amounts of energy, a configuration of this type would be particularly helpful when, for example, a dish containing various foods is positioned on the rack for cooking. A top view of the preferred lamp array is shown in FIG. 9. In the preferred oven, the lamps in the upper and lower arrays are identically arranged. Positioning of the lamps will be described with respect to a midline m which bisects the array and which intersects the axis of rotation r (FIGS. 6 and 7) of the rack 31. Three of the lamps, 18a, 18b, and 18c, are positioned on one side of the midline and are respectively 5.5 inches, 4.5 inches and 1 inch from the midline. The remaining two lamps, 18d, 18e, are positioned on the opposite side of the midline and are positioned 3.5 inches and 5.9 inches from the midline, respectively. The lamps are positioned approximately 3 inches above the rack 31. The lateral positions of the lamps from the midline can be varied plus or minus one-eighth inch from their stated positions while still maintaining substantially uniform radiation across the food location. Using the preferred dimensions given above, the lamp configuration may be reduced to a mathematical expression which will yield alternative lamp configurations that will likewise achieve uniform cooking. Assuming the diameter of the food location "d" is 12 inches and the lamp filament length "L" is 10 inches as stated above, it can be seen that L=(10/12)×d. A general formulation of the distance of each lamp from the midline "m" may be calculated in terms of L as follows: D n =x n L, where D n is the distance from the midline of the lamp having reference numeral "n" in FIG. 7. For example, for lamps 18c and 18b the respective multiplier x 18c and x 18b , may be calculated using the distances used in the preferred embodiment: D.sub.18c =1=x.sub.18c (10) x.sub.18c =1/10 D.sub.18b =4.5=x.sub.18b (10) x.sub.18b =4.5/10 The multipliers for the all of the lamps 18a through 18d, which were calculated in the manner shown above, are included in the following chart: ______________________________________ Lamp No. x.sub.n______________________________________ 18a 5.5/10 18b 4.5/10 18c 1/10 18d 3.5/100 18e 5.9/10______________________________________ In similar fashion, the distance D n between the midline "m" and each of the respective lamps may be expressed in terms of the relationship (L/d) (where L/d is approximately between 10/12 and 1) of the length "L" of the lamp filaments to the diameter "d" of the food location: D.sub.n =y.sub.n (L/d) The multiplier y n for each of the respective lamps is thus calculated using the preferred distances between each of those lamps and the midline D.sub.18c =1=y.sub.18c (10/12) y.sub.18c =12/10=1.2 D.sub.18b =4.5=y.sub.18b (10/12) y.sub.18b =5/4 The multipliers for the all of the lamps 18a through 18d, which were calculated in the manner shown above, are included in the following chart: ______________________________________ Lamp No. y.sub.n______________________________________ 18a 6.6 18b 5.4 18c 1.2 18d 4.2 18e 7.08______________________________________ In the embodiment of FIG. 7 the positions of the lower lamps 16a-16e are the same as the upper lamps 18a-18e but obviously the position of one of these two sets can be reversed with respect to the other. To use the oven of the present invention, the food item sought to be cooked is positioned on the rack 31 and the door 40 is closed. The motor is switched on, causing the roller to engage and rotate the rack. The lamps are illuminated for a predetermined cooking time, causing the food item to cook uniformly. The present invention is described in relation to the preferred embodiment but is limited only in terms of the language of the appended claims.

Description

Topics

Download Full PDF Version (Non-Commercial Use)

Patent Citations (37)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    DE-2546106-A1April 28, 1977Bbc Brown Boveri & CieMicrowave food heating oven - has light radiator system with heat applied through ceramic glass and adjustable filters
    DE-3503648-A1April 03, 1986Ego Elektro Blanc & FischerStrahlheizkoerper fuer kochgeraete
    EP-0215617-A1March 25, 1987THORN EMI Patents LimitedGrill
    EP-0226407-A2June 24, 1987THORN EMI Patents LimitedFour
    EP-0332081-A2September 13, 1989ALGA DI GIUDICI ANGELAMARIA & C. S.n.c.Four de cuisson à chauffage par des lampes halogènes tungstène
    GB-1273023-AMay 03, 1972Electricity CouncilImprovements in or relating to electric cookers
    GB-2132060-AJune 27, 1984Thorn Emi Domestic AppliancesHeating apparatus
    GB-2152790-AAugust 07, 1985Thorn Emi Domestic AppliancesAdditional heating in microwave ovens
    GB-2180637-AApril 01, 1987Thorn Emi AppliancesA grilling arrangement
    GB-2245136-AJanuary 02, 1992Apv Baker Pty LtdRotary bakers' oven
    JP-H01154483-AJune 16, 1989Matsushita Electric Ind Co LtdElectric cooker
    JP-S5947302-AMarch 17, 1984Sumitomo Electric Ind LtdSintering furnace
    JP-S6037116-AFebruary 26, 1985Ushio IncOptical irradiating furnace
    US-2559249-AJuly 03, 1951William H HudsonInfrared oven structure
    US-2864932-ADecember 16, 1958Walter O ForrerInfrared cooking oven
    US-3037443-AJune 05, 1962Newkirk Floyd, Kowalskey RaymondMeans for heating prepared and packaged sandwiches and similar articles of food
    US-3304406-AFebruary 14, 1967Square Mfg CompanyInfrared oven for heating food in packages
    US-3313917-AApril 11, 1967Litton Prec Products IncDoorless infrared oven
    US-3342977-ASeptember 19, 1967Detroit Edison CoElectric broiler heating element
    US-3569656-AMarch 09, 1971Bowmar Tic IncAutomatic cooking cycle control system for microwave ovens
    US-3621200-ANovember 16, 1971American Packaging CorpHeating element and packaging machine equipped therewith
    US-3688084-AAugust 29, 1972Detroit Edison CoElectric broiler heating unit
    US-3828163-AAugust 06, 1974Matsushita Electric Ind Co LtdElectric oven
    US-4410779-AOctober 18, 1983Raytheon CompanyCombination microwave oven control system
    US-4463238-AJuly 31, 1984Sharp Kabushiki KaishaCombined microwave and electric heating oven selectively controlled by gas sensor output and thermistor output
    US-4481405-ANovember 06, 1984Malick Franklin SCooking appliance
    US-4486639-ADecember 04, 1984Control Data CorporationMicrowave oven quartz lamp heaters
    US-4516486-AMay 14, 1985Burkhart William HCooking apparatus and method
    US-4554437-ANovember 19, 1985Pet IncorporatedTunnel oven
    US-4575616-AMarch 11, 1986Aktiebolaget ElectroluxDomestic infra-red radiation oven
    US-4687895-AAugust 18, 1987Superwave Technology, Inc.Conveyorized microwave heating system
    US-4700051-AOctober 13, 1987E.G.O. Elektro-Gerate Blanc U. FischerRadiant heater for cooking appliances
    US-4731251-AMarch 15, 1988Dragomir JovanovicMethod of and apparatus for cooking of foods
    US-4761529-AAugust 02, 1988Thorn Emi Patents LimitedGrilling or browning apparatus suitable for use in a microwave or convection oven
    US-5045671-ASeptember 03, 1991Rinnai Kabushiki KaishaOven using halogen lamps
    US-5378872-AJanuary 03, 1995Jovanovic; DragomirInfrared apparatus for baking pastries and pizzas
    US-793424-AJune 27, 1905Levitt E CusterElectric oven.

NO-Patent Citations (5)

    Title
    Beggs, E.W., Quicker Drying with Lamps , Jul., 1939, vol. 97, No. 7, pp. 88 89.
    Fostoria Corporation, Heat Processing with Infrared , Feb., 1962, pp. 1 7.
    Harold McGee, Book, On Food and Cooking , Charles Schribner s Sons, New York,1984, Chapter 14, pp. 608 624.
    Sato et al, Effects of Radiative Characteristics of Heaters on Crust Formation and Coloring Processes of Food Surface , Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, V. 24, No. 9, (1995).
    Summer, W. Dr., Ultra Violet and Infra Red Engineering , 1962, pp. 102 112.

Cited By (24)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    FR-2897419-A1August 17, 2007Bourgeois Prod CoopConvection oven for e.g. flash roasting food, has energy source, control unit and resistors regulating temperature of oven to specific degree Celsius during specific roasting operation stage, where resistors and turbine are placed in cavity
    US-2004065654-A1April 08, 2004Coleman Gavin John, Simpson Karen SarahOven with cavity having turntable and heater
    US-2006110141-A1May 25, 2006Burkett William W, Burkett Glenda SSpace heater with pretreated heat exchanger
    US-2009038483-A1February 12, 2009Dino ScorzielloHigh density disk and ellipse for cooking pizza
    US-2009064985-A1March 12, 2009Willard GustavsenHigh temperature bake oven
    US-2010172637-A1July 08, 2010Tsann Kuen (Zhangzhou) Enterprise Co., Ltd.Oven
    US-2010193507-A1August 05, 2010General Electric CompanySpeedcooking oven
    US-2010254686-A1October 07, 2010Suarez Corporation IndustriesPortable heater
    US-2012294595-A1November 22, 2012Prince Castle LLCConveyor Oven with Varying Emitted Infrared Profiles
    US-2016220057-A1August 04, 2016Spectrum Brands, Inc.Cooking appliance with different modes for cooking different types of food products
    US-6327427-B1December 04, 2001Mhe Corp.Space heater and enclosure
    US-6521870-B2February 18, 2003General Electric CompanyThermal/convection oven including halogen lamps
    US-6670586-B2December 30, 2003Redi-Kwik Corp.Infrared oven
    US-7046918-B1May 16, 2006Mhe Corp.Space heater with pretreated heat exchanger
    US-7686010-B2March 30, 2010Willard GustavsenHigh temperature bake oven
    US-8578927-B2November 12, 2013Willard GustavsenHigh temperature bake oven and method
    US-8637792-B2January 28, 2014Prince Castle, LLCConveyor oven with adjustable air vents
    US-8886024-B2November 11, 2014Suarez Corporation IndustriesPortable air conditioning apparatus
    US-8971695-B2March 03, 2015Suarez Corporation IndustriesPortable heater
    US-9332877-B2May 10, 2016Pressco Ip LlcCookware and cook-packs for narrowband irradiation cooking and systems and methods thereof
    US-9357877-B2June 07, 2016Pressco Ip LlcCookware and cook-packs for narrowband irradiation cooking and systems and methods thereof
    WO-2007059309-A2May 24, 2007Redi-Kwick CorporationFour a infrarouge
    WO-2007059309-A3October 04, 2007Redi Kwick Corp, Mats O IngemansonFour a infrarouge
    WO-2014161916-A1October 09, 2014Koninklijke Philips N.V.Tube chauffant et utilisation de ce dernier dans un dispositif permettant de chauffer des articles